The Malay Dilemma By Munshi Abdullah...The Transformation Into The Real Malay

Volume II Hikayat Abdullah...
Deriding the lifestyle of his fellow Malays in particular the tyranny of their feudal rulers, their superstitions, and their lack of interest in education. These themes are indeed evident, please click here.

Sir Frank Sweetenham, an officer of British Malaya wrote The Real Malay, please click here, depicting the accounts of the real Malay.

Munshi Abdullah criticised in advance his fellow Malays - The Malay Dilemma that the real Malay by Frank Sweetenham is judged by English prejudices should be refine to transform the real Malay.

Perhaps these works has inspired Tun Dr Mahathir to write The Modern Malay Dilemma in 1969. 

Indeed the works of Munshi Abdullah in 19th century are still relevant to modern Malays.


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